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  ✔本篇論文使用華聯產品:Mouse OneArray  
 Cellular Microbiology. 2013 Sep 17. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12216.
 Streptococcal co-infection augments Candida pathogenicity by amplifying the mucosal inflammatory response 
 Xu H, Sobue T, Thompson A, Xie Z, Poon K, Ricker A, Cervantes J, Diaz Pi, Dongari-bagtzoglou A
  Abstract
Mitis-group streptococci are ubiquitous oral commensals that can promote polybacterial biofilm virulence. Using a novel murine oral mucosal co-infection model we sought to determine for the first time whether these organisms promote the virulence of C. albicans mucosal biofilms in oropharyngeal infection and explored mechanisms of pathogenic synergy. We found that Streptococcus oralis colonization of the oral and gastrointestinal tract was augmented in the presence of C. albicans. S. oralis and C. albicans co-infection significantly augmented the frequency and size of oral thrush lesions. Importantly, S. oralis promoted deep organ dissemination of C. albicans. Whole mouse genome tongue microarray analysis showed that when compared with animals infected with one organism, the doubly infected animals had genes in the major categories of neutrophilic response/chemotaxis/inflammation significantly upregulated, indicative of an exaggerated inflammatory response. This response was dependent on TLR2 signalling since oral lesions, transcription of pro-inflammatory genes and neutrophil infiltration, were attenuated in TLR2-/- animals. Furthermore, S. oralis activated neutrophils in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, this study identifies a previously unrecognized pathogenic synergy between oral commensal bacteriaand C. albicans. This is the first report of the ability of mucosal commensal bacteria to modify the virulence of an opportunistic fungal pathogen.
   

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  ✔本篇論文使用華聯產品:Human OneArray  
 Bmc Bioinformatics. doi: 10.1186/s12859-015-0848-x.
 Gene expression profiling identifies candidate biomarkers for active and latent tuberculosis
 
 
 
  Abstract
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease in that 90 % of those latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis present no symptoms, but possess a 10 % lifetime chance of developing active TB. To prevent the spread of the disease, early diagnosis is crucial. However, current methods of detection require improvement in sensitivity, efficiency or specificity. In the present study, we conducted a microarray experiment, comparing the gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells among individuals with active TB, latent infection, and healthy conditions in a Taiwanese population. Results Bioinformatics analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes belonged to immune responses, inflammation pathways, and cell cycle control. Subsequent RT-PCR validation identified four differentially expressed genes, NEMF, ASUN, DHX29, and PTPRC, as potential biomarkers for the detection of active and latent TB infections. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the expression level of PTPRC may discriminate active TB patients from healthy individuals, while ASUN could differentiate between the latent state of TB infection and healthy condidtion. In contrast, DHX29 may be used to identify latently infected individuals among active TB patients or healthy individuals. To test the concept of using these biomarkers as diagnostic support, we constructed classification models using these candidate biomarkers and found the Naïve Bayes-based model built with ASUN, DHX29, and PTPRC to yield the best performance. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that gene expression profiles in the blood can be used to identify not only active TB patients, but also to differentiate latently infected patients from their healthy counterparts. Validation of the constructed computational model in a larger sample size would confirm the reliability of the biomarkers and facilitate the development of a cost-effective and sensitive molecular diagnostic platform for TB.
   

  ✔本篇論文使用華聯產品:Human OneArray,Human miRNA OneArray  
 Biomed Research International. 2014 July 1.
 Systematic expression profiling analysis identifies specific microRNA-gene interactions that may differentiate between active and latent tuberculosis infection
 
 
 Lawrence Shih-hsin Wu, Shih-wei Lee, Kai-yao Huang, Tzong-yi Lee, Paul Wei-che Hsu, Julia Tzu-ya Weng
  Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases. About 90% of those infected are asymptomatic¡Xthe so-called latent TB infections (LTBI), with a 10% lifetime chance of progressing to active TB. In attempt to further understand the molecular pathogenesis of TB and develop efficient diagnostic biomarkers, several molecular studies have attempted to compare the gene and microRNA expression profiles between healthy controls versus active TB or LTBI patients. However, the results vary due to diverse genetic background, study designs, and the inherent complexity of the disease process. Thus, developing a sensitive and efficient method for the detection of LTBI is both crucial and challenging. For the present study, we performed a systematic analysis of the gene and microRNA profiles of healthy individuals versus those affected with TB or LTBI. Combined with a series of in silico analysis utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and published literature data, we have uncovered several microRNA-gene interactions that specifically target both the blood and lungs, presenting to be useful molecular signatures to help enhance the understanding of TB pathogenesis. Furthermore, some of these molecular interactions are novel, and may serve as potential biomarkers of TB and LTBI, facilitating the development for a more sensitive, efficient, and cost-effective diagnostic assay for TB and LTBI for the Taiwanese population.
   

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  ✔本篇論文使用華聯產品:Mouse OneArray  
 International Journal Of Molecular Sciences. doi:10.3390/ijms17010098.
 Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection
 
 
 
  Abstract
The d-galactose (d-gal)-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks). First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1) that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm-head morphologies or maintaining nuclear integration (e.g., cylicin, basic protein of sperm head cytoskeleton 2 (Cylc2), casein kinase 2, alpha prime interacting protein (Csnka2ip) and katanin p80 (WD40-containing) subunit B1 (Katnb1)). These results indicate that d-gal-injected mice are suitable for investigating male reproductive aging.
   

  ✔本篇論文使用華聯產品:Mouse OneArray  
 Histochemistry And Cell Biology. doi: 10.1007/s00418-015-1348-9..
 Impact of diethylhexyl phthalate on gene expression and development of mammary glands of pregnant mouse.
 
 
 
  Abstract
The widely used diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a known endocrine disruptor that causes persistent alterations in the structure and function of female reproductive system, including ovaries, uterus and oviducts. To explore the molecular mechanism of the effect of DEHP on the development of mammary glands, we investigated the cell cycle, growth, proliferation and gene expression of mammary gland cells of pregnant mice exposed to DEHP. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that the mammary gland cells of pregnant mice treated with DEHP for 0.5–3.5 days post-coitum had increased proliferation, growth rate and number of cells in the G2/S phase. The expression of cell proliferation-related genes was significantly altered after short time and low-dose DEHP treatment of mammary gland cells in vivo and in vitro. These findings showed adverse effects of DEHP on mammary gland cells in pregnant mice.